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Monitoring Black Sea environmental changes from space: jnew products for altimetry, ocean colour and salinity. Potentialities and requirements for a dedicated in-situ observing system
Grégoire, M.; Alvera-Azcaráte, A.; Buga, L.; Capet, A.; Constantin, S.; D’Ortenzio, F.; Doxaran, D.; Faugeras, Y.; García-Espriu, A.; Golumbeanu, M.; González-Haro, C.; González-Gambau, V.; Kasprzyk, J.-P.; Ivanov, E.; Mason, E.; Mateescu, R.; Meulders, C.; Olmedo, E.; Pons, L.; Pujol, M.-I.; Sarbu, G.; Turiel, A.; Vandenbulcke, L.; Rio, M.-H. (2023). Monitoring Black Sea environmental changes from space: jnew products for altimetry, ocean colour and salinity. Potentialities and requirements for a dedicated in-situ observing system. Front. Mar. Sci. 9: 998970. https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.998970
In: Frontiers in Marine Science. Frontiers Media: Lausanne. e-ISSN 2296-7745, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    satellite; ocean colour; altimetry; salinity; Black Sea; environment monitoring; observing system

Authors  Top 
  • Grégoire, M., more
  • Alvera-Azcaráte, A., more
  • Buga, L.
  • Capet, A., more
  • Constantin, S.
  • D’Ortenzio, F.
  • Doxaran, D.
  • Faugeras, Y.
  • García-Espriu, A.
  • Golumbeanu, M.
  • González-Haro, C.
  • González-Gambau, V.
  • Kasprzyk, J.-P., more
  • Ivanov, E., more
  • Mason, E., more
  • Mateescu, R.
  • Meulders, C., more
  • Olmedo, E.
  • Pons, L.
  • Pujol, M.-I.
  • Sarbu, G.
  • Turiel, A.
  • Vandenbulcke, L., more
  • Rio, M.-H.

    In this paper, satellite products developed during the Earth Observation for Science and Innovation in the Black Sea (EO4SIBS) ESA project are presented. Ocean colour, sea level anomaly and sea surface salinity datasets are produced for the last decade and validated with regional in-situ observations. New data processing is tested to appropriately tackle the Black Sea’s particular configuration and geophysical characteristics. For altimetry, the full rate (20Hz) altimeter measurements from Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3A are processed to deliver a 5Hz along-track product. This product is combined with existing 1Hz product to produce gridded datasets for the sea level anomaly, mean dynamic topography, geostrophic currents. This new set of altimetry gridded products offers a better definition of the main Black Sea current, a more accurate reconstruction and characterization of eddies structure, in particular, in coastal areas, and improves the observable wavelength by a factor of 1.6. The EO4SIBS sea surface salinity from SMOS is the first satellite product for salinity in the Black Sea. Specific data treatments are applied to remedy the issue of land-sea and radio frequency interference contamination and to adapt the dielectric constant model to the low salinity and cold waters of the Black Sea. The quality of the SMOS products is assessed and shows a significant improvement from Level-2 to Level -3 and Level-4 products. Level-4 products accuracy is 0.4-0.6 psu, a comparable value to that in the Mediterranean Sea. On average SMOS sea surface salinity is lower than salinity measured by Argo floats, with a larger error in the eastern basin. The adequacy of SMOS SSS to reproduce the spatial characteristics of the Black Sea surface salinity and, in particular, plume patterns is analyzed. For ocean colour, chlorophyll-a, turbidity and suspended particulate materials are proposed using regional calibrated algorithms and satellite data provided by OLCI sensor onboard Sentinel-3 mission. The seasonal cycle of ocean colour products is described and a water classification scheme is proposed. The development of these three types of products has suffered from important in-situ data gaps that hinder a sound calibration of the algorithms and a proper assessment of the datasets quality. We propose recommendations for improving the in-situ observing system that will support the development of satellite products.

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