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Good Environmental Status of marine ecosystems: What is it and how do we know when we have attained it?
Borja, A.; Elliott, M.; Andersen, J.H.; Cardoso, A.C.; Carstensen, J.; Ferreira, J.G.; Heiskanen, A.-S.; Marques, J.C.; Neto, J.M.; Teixeira, H.; Uusitalo, L.; Uyarra, M.C.; Zampoukas, N. (2013). Good Environmental Status of marine ecosystems: What is it and how do we know when we have attained it? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 76(1-2): 16-27.
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X; e-ISSN 1879-3363, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    Assessment; Good Environmental Status; Descriptors; Indicators; Integration; Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Authors  Top 
  • Borja, A., more
  • Elliott, M., more
  • Andersen, J.H.
  • Cardoso, A.C.
  • Carstensen, J.
  • Ferreira, J.G.
  • Heiskanen, A.-S., more
  • Marques, J.C.
  • Neto, J.M.
  • Teixeira, H.
  • Uusitalo, L.
  • Uyarra, M.C.
  • Zampoukas, N.

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires EU Member States (MS) to achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS) of their seas by 2020. We address the question of what GEnS entails especially with regard to the level at which targets are set (descriptors, criteria, indicators), to scales for assessments (regional, sub-divisions, site-specific), and to difficulties in putting into practice the GEnS concept. We propose a refined and operational definition of GEnS, indicating the data and information needed to all parts of that definition. We indicate the options for determining when GEnS has been met, acknowledge the data and information needs for each option, and recommend a combination of existing quantitative targets and expert judgement. We think that the MSFD implementation needs to be less complex than shown for other similar directives, can be based largely on existing data and can be centred on the activities of the Regional Seas Conventions.

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