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Lower carboniferous fractured carbonates of the Campine Basin (NE-Belgium) as potential geothermal reservoir: age and origin of open carbonate veins
Swennen, R.; van der Voet, E.; Wei, W.; Muchez, P. (2021). Lower carboniferous fractured carbonates of the Campine Basin (NE-Belgium) as potential geothermal reservoir: age and origin of open carbonate veins. Geothermics 96: 102147.
In: Geothermics. International Institute for Geothermal Research: Pisa. ISSN 0375-6505; e-ISSN 1879-3576, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Lower Carboniferous; Limestones; U/Pb dating; Clumped isotopes; Open veins; Campine Basin (Belgium)

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    Within the Lower Carboniferous limestones in the boreholes of Poederlee, Heibaart and Turnhout (Campine Basin, NE-Belgium), open veins partially cemented by calcite and dolomite are considered important with regard to the geothermal reservoir potential of these limestones. Based on a detailed petrographic analysis, stable carbon and oxygen as well as clumped Δ47 isotope analysis and U/Pb age dating, the formation conditions of these veins have been reconstructed and were placed in the geodynamic evolution of the sedimentary basin. All host rocks are recrystallized, and the open carbonate vein cements often possess a similar depleted δ18OPDB signature as their recrystallized host rock. The latter thus indicates vein cement precipitation was likely rock-buffered. The δ13C signature of the host rock often displays a marine signature, while in the veins two isotopic clusters can be differentiated. The first cluster groups veins with cleavage twins, and are characterized by slightly to moderately depleted δ13C, reflecting a mixture of marine carbon with carbon derived from organic matter. This group typically occurs in the open veins from the microbially dominated Poederlee and Heibaart buildups characterised by on-lapping organic-rich Namurian black shales. One of these veins formed at 216 ± 6 °C, indicating that it crystallised during the Sudetic – Asturian deformation stage of late Carboniferous age, while others formed between 110 and 130 °C, indicating that they could have been formed during the late Carboniferous burial stage or after the Sudetic – Asturian deformation and uplift. The second cluster groups veins that may, but often do not, contain cleavage twins. They show host-rock buffered δ13C signatures. These veins have a Cretaceous (late Aptian/early Albian) and/or Paleocene U/Pb age and formed at temperatures dominantly between 50 and 80 °C based on clumped isotopes.

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