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Comparing the morphology of mud versus magmatic volcanoes
Tytgat, N.; Depreiter, D.; Kervyn, M.; Van Rensbergen, P.; Henriet, J.; Ernst, G. (2005). Comparing the morphology of mud versus magmatic volcanoes. Eos, Trans. (Wash. D.C.) AGU Fall Meet. Suppl. 86(52): abstract V21D-0647
In: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. American Geophysical Union: Washington. ISSN 0096-3941; e-ISSN 2324-9250, more

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Document type: Summary

Author keywords
    3045 Seafloor morphology; geology; and geophysics; 8400 VOLCANOLOGY; 8426 Mud volcanism; 8485 Remote sensing of volcanoes

Authors  Top 
  • Tytgat, N.
  • Depreiter, D., more
  • Kervyn, M.
  • Van Rensbergen, P., more
  • Henriet, J., more
  • Ernst, G.

    Morphological parameters of offshore (Gulf of Cadiz, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea) and onshore (Azerbeidjan) mud volcanoes are compared with data from magmatic volcanoes. The offshore data series are compiled from multibeam bathymetry measurements (Gulf of Cadiz and Black Sea), and data from literature (Mediterrean Sea). The onshore data series (Azerbeidjan) is derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ and SRTMDEM data. The studied mud volcanoes range between 25 m and 285 m high and are up to 5.8 km in diameter. The main morphological aspects of the mud volcanoes, both onshore and offshore are, from the margin towards the centre, a subsidence rim or moat, the mud volcano slope, in some cases a deep crater, and a recent central mud dome at the top. The slope varies between concave, linear or convex and is characterised by radial outward sediment flow deposits or by a concentric pattern of terraces and steps. The sediment flow deposits can be divided into elongate outflows that accumulate at the base of the slope and short bulky outflow deposits that freeze on the steep slope. Morphological parameters distinguish two end-members: 'effusive' low rounded mud volcanoes and 'explosive' steep sloped mud volcanoes. Comparing with morphological data from magmatic volcanoes shows great similarity despite the large differences in size. It is demonstrated that the shape of a volcano is independent from its size but seems to be controlled by the flow behaviour of the erupted material. This study is the first to generate a representative data series about mud volcano morphology and to discuss its variability in terms of eruption mechanism. Comparison with magmatic mud volcanoes demonstrates that mud volcanoes are a good small scale analog to study big-scale volcanic processes.

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